China’s Repression on Uyghur Muslims
Mr. Nury Turkel is a lawyer and Uyghur rights advocate who was born in a re education camp in Kashgar at the height of the Cultural Revolution. Turkel holds a Master of Arts in International Relations and boucles d’oreille strass noir a Juris Doctor degree, both from the American University in Washington, DC. He is the first US educated Uyghur lawyer.
Turkel served as the President of the Uyghur American Association from 2004 to 2006. In 2003, he co founded and served as the first Executive Director of the Uyghur Human Rights Project (UHRP), an organization for which he has served as Board Chair since March 2018. He also served as a legal and policy adviser to the World Uyghur Congress.
As an important voice for the Uyghur people, Turkel has spoken at numerous policy forums, academic institutes, and human rights conferences; testified before the US Congress and Australian Parliament; and appeared on many major boucles d’oreille led media outlets including CNN, BBC, PBS Frontline, Fox News, Al Jazeera, Australian asos boucles d’oreille homme ABC, Sky News, France 24, and TRT World. publications such asThe Wall Street Journal,The Independent, andForeign Policy.
He was interviewed by our Founding Editor, Prashant Khurana.
PRASHANTThank you for interacting with Polemics and Pedantics. For the benefit our readers, could explain your work, the work of Uyghur Human Rights Project (UHRP) and what exactly it has been trying to accomplish outside China
MR. TURKELUHRP works to advocate human rights research and documentation. collier ras de cou cache cache We received a generous research grant from the national Endowment for democracy. During the last 15 years, we grew from a one man organization to a credible organization with a professional team. We use our website to publish reports on the various programs of governments [relating to the rights of Uyghur people]. In the last 15 years, we have published over 40 Asia specific research reports. These include China’s legislative initiatives, their war on terrorism, environmental issues, and the ban on Uyghur language and their educational system. Most recently, we boucles d’oreille maille forçat published a report on the disappearance of Uyghur scholars, and another on the demolition of mosques. The latter constitutes China’s attempt to debase Uyghur culture, historic sites, boucles d’oreille broderie cemeteries, etc. Our researchers were able to identify 150 such sites using before and after [satellite] images. We are currently focusing on other pressing issues, for example, some of the camps [in China] are being transformed into forced labor camps. So, those are the issues on which we have had a focus. The [US] State Department and the boucles d’oreille fossile [US] Congress boucles d’oreille manège à bijoux leclerc often rely on our research in conducting their fact finding on such issues.
As for my personal involvement, I was the first Executive Director of UHRP, and since 2017, I have been the Chairman of the Board. I don’t work at UHRP full time, but I help with the organization’s policy advocacy work, fundraising, and media appearances.
PRASHANTCan you draw a brief timeline for how these recently reported camps and violations of Human Rights began Is Chinese repression restricted to the Xinjiang province or does it go beyond that as well
MR. TURKELFirst of all, the term ‘Xinjiang province’ is boucles d’oreille asos incorrect. I would rather not use that term. Whenever we mention official government entities or specific Chinese government officials, only then [would it be right to] use the word Xinjiang. For instance, we say Xinjiang Party, Communist Party in Xinjiang, etc. This has since been misrepresented in popular media to be the name of the province. The official name is Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR). So, we should use either ‘East Turkestan’, which is the historic name, or use the term ‘Uyghur region’.
The ongoing crisis, which has now entered its third year, did not start overnight. It has been in the works for at least two three decades. The major policy shift really took place after the end of the Cold War. The Chinese government in the mid 90s realized that ikita boucles d’oreille if it is not pre emptively tackled, the ‘Uyghur issue’ may become a global concern. In other words, they were trying to prevent the region from going the way of the Balkan region [under the Soviet Union]. To this end, [China] started its ‘Strike Hard Campaign’ in mid 1990s, and used its diplomatic and regional influence bracelet cuir homme haut de gamme to establish the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Through this international entity, China exercises control over political activities in its neighboring countries all the ‘ stans’ [like Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, etc.].
Then came 9/11. Prior to this boucles d’oreille argent fille [the 9/11 attacks in the US], the Chinese government had characterized the Uyghur resentment as a collection de boucles d’oreille en strass en multiforme – doré ‘separatist movement’. Post 9/11 however, there was a change in the tone as China began portraying itself as a victim bracelet cuir homme grave of terrorism. In 2002, the United Nations agreed to designate the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) as a terrorist organization. This helped the Chinese government to advance its propaganda against them.
PRASHANT Can you tell us a little about this organization Why was it designated as such by the UN
MR. TURKELThe ETIM’s designation expired in 2004. It was only designated for 2 years. However, the publicity was already created by then among China’s Muslim allies. collier ras de cou pierre turquoise This has allowed the Chinese government to continue the propaganda campaign that we’ve been hearing about even as we speak today.
Anyway, this went on for about eight years. In 2009, there was a peaceful street protest that turned into a violent clash between Han Chinese individuals managing security, and Uyghur protestors. For the Chinese government, this was a wake up call. They realized [that] they needed to do something to prevent such an uprising from taking place again. Then, when the Syrian Civil War started, some Uyghurs managed to reach Syria to fight against the Bashar Al Assad Regime [in Syria]. During this period, from 2012 through 2015, there were some violent incidents that took place in China where Uyghur Muslims were harmed. A New York Times revelation from 2019, that I would invite all your readers to read [The NYT investigation can be accessed here], Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping decided that improving the materialistic situation of Uyghurs had not given them the type of obedience and loyalty that they desired.
At that point, in 2014, Xi Jinping decided to debase the ideological underpinnings of Uyghur culture and began a process of forced assimilation by attacking the Uyghur ethno national identity and practices. From 2014 16, the Government began this ‘final solution’ to the so called ‘Xinjiang Problem.’ This has been documented by various scholars specializing in CCP [Communist Party of China] policies. The news of these boucles d’oreille homme diamant camps surfaced in 2017. Based on leaked documents revealed by the Western Press, this Chinese official in the region by the name, Mr. Chen Quanguo, ordered that everyone who should be arrested, must be arrested. In December 2018, a UN Panel on Elimination of Racial Discrimination brought light on the present crisis challenging the Chinese Government. This report finally increased the media scrutiny, government responses, the number of Uyghurs coming to testify, etc. [The committee discussion with the Chinese Government delegation can be accessed here].
In October 2019, the US government ratcheted up the pressure, announcing an entity list. In this list, 28 entities including 18 police departments were sanctioned. The US has also imposed visa restrictions on Chinese officials responsible for the ongoing Crimes Against Humanity. The [US] Senate passed a legislation which was sent to the [US] House [of Representatives]. The House passed an amended version of the same on December 3, 2019, challenging the Chinese actions against Uyghurs.
This is where we are now. Clearly, this did not happen overnight, it took the Chinese Government atleast 15 years, if we consider since 9/11 in 2001, to get to the level of repression we see today.
PRASHANTBut what exactly is the Chinese objective here They couch it in terms of terrorism, but would you say that the objective is some sort of an ideological integration or is there some material motivation behind all this
MR. TURKELOne word: Racism. The Chinese government perceives Uyghur Islam and their cultural identity as a source of future political unrest. They [are] claiming to fight against extremism and terrorism, but you don’t do that by locking up three million citizens Chinese citizens. It is a very significant number.
While the Chinese claim that they’re fighting against terrorism, but their policies boucles d’oreille noir homme are not based on an actual threat they are based on a perceived threat. There is nothing to base that perception on, I would say. To put in layman’s terms everything has been so quiet since 2015 [there are no reported protests]. Yet the repression has only intensified. This shows that counter terrorism is only a claim. If you visit The Washington Post and look for an Op Ed by Nathan Sales, the US State Department’s top counter terrorism bracelet cuir homme atelier de famille official, and US Ambassador Sam Brownback, you will conclude that this has nothing to do with terrorism. [The Washington Post Op Ed can be accessed here]
PRASHANTWhat can you tell us about the camps What are the living conditions there
MR. TURKELBased on the survivors’ accounts and victims’ descriptions, the Chinese have four types of camps. The first type, are Mass Internment Camps, where they [Chinese Officials] just round up people based on the information generated through artificial intelligence. This AI relies on travel history, family connections, publications, social influence, wealth, business activities, that’s the first one, that’s where a massive boucles d’oreille en perles number of people are being detained.
The second kind are the Daily Re education Camps that they set up at various government establishments like universities, campuses, government bureaus, where people go for daily brainwashing, indoctrination program, and go home at night.
The third type is the actual prison that has individuals who signification bracelet cuir homme were rounded up early on and faced criminal charges and are boucles d’oreille boule blanche facing anywhere between 10 15 years of imprisonment. In some instances, they may get a 3 year reprieve. The most famous case is that of the Former President of Xinjiang University, Tashpolat Tiyip. We have recently received a disturbing news that his execution is now imminent. That’s the third type an actual prison.
The fourth kind are the Forced Labor Camps. They [Chinese Government] show these on propaganda channels where people are wearing uniforms, working in factories. But it is forced labor. Some of the products made in these facilities have even made it to shelves in the United States. Recently, Costco removed baby pyjamas from its shelves, when it emerged that these were manufactured in those camps. [The report can be accessed here]
So, there are four types and once you add them up it will be a significant number of people [in involuntary detention of some form]. The three million number has been estimated by a US Pentagon official, Randall Schriver in May 2019. He is also the one who used the word ‘Concentration Camps’ and explicitly stated boucles d’oreille kenzo that around 3 million people have been detained. So, adding up the four types of camps, the number of people could be well above 3 million as well.
PRASHANTSo, the purpose of this daily re education is to get them to boucles d’oreille boules dorées forget about religion and to indoctrinate them in particular state practices Or, is there some other purpose behind this as well
MR. TURKELIndoctrination happens in all of those camps, it’s not exclusive to the Re education Camps. All [four types of] camps have one objective: changing the belief in Allah to a belief in Xi Jinping. They have these new books, and even mobile apps called Xi Jinping Thoughts. Those captured are forced to attend to these indoctrination practices every day. These include renunciation of all religious beliefs, because the Chinese [establishment] believe that, and this is something they have publicly stated, Uyghur Islam is a mental illness that has to be weeded out. Their way of fighting against these forces [what the Chinese government refers to as 'extremism'] on the ideological front is a euphemism of saying that boucles d’oreille avec perles de culture ‘we need to get rid of Uyghur Islam.’..